The optical reproduction of an object, produced by a lens or mirror. A typical positive lens converges rays to form a “real” image that can be photographed. A negative lens spreads rays to form a “virtual” image that cannot be projected.
A ray of light that falls on the surface of a lens or any other object. The “angle of incidence” is the angle made by the ray with a perpendicular to the surface.
Pertains to two or more waves that do not have a fixed phase relationship with respect to one another.
Infrared (IR) radiation
Invisible electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths that lie within the range of 0.70 to 1000 micrometers. This region is often broken up into IR-A, IR-B, and IR-C.
Product of the exposure duration and radiance. Also known as pulsed radiance.
The magnitude of radiant energy.
A device that uses the principle of interference of electromagnetic waves for measurement purposes (e.g., to measure wavelength or temperature).
The viewing condition whereby the eye is exposed to all or part of a direct laser beam or a specular reflection.
A type of laser employing a very high discharge current, passing down a small bore to ionize a noble gas such as argon or krypton.
Radiation commonly associated with X-ray or other high energy electro-magnetic radiation that will cause DNA damage with no direct, immediate thermal effect. Contrasts with non-ionizing radiation of lasers.
Device that uses thin overlapping plates to change the diameter of a central opening and, therefore, to control the amount of light allowed through it. Enables users to adjust the diameter of a beam.
Radiant flux (radiant power) per unit area incident upon a given surface. Units
Watts per square centimeter. (Sometimes referred to as power density, although not exactly correct.)
Exposure to radiant energy, such as heat, X-rays, or light.
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