Waves are in phase with each other when all the troughs and peaks coincide and are “locked” together. The result is a reinforced wave in increased amplitude (brightness).
Use of the laser beam to heat tissue below vaporization temperatures with the principal objective being to stop bleeding and coagulate tissue.
An instrument that measures luminous intensity.
In quantum theory, the elemental unit of light, having both wave and particle behavior. It has motion but no mass or charge. The photon energy (E) is proportional to the EM wave frequency (v) by the relationship: E=hv, where h is Planck’s constant (6.63 x 10-34 Joule-sec).
Chemical substances or medications that increase the sensitivity of the skin or eye to irradiation by optical radiation, usually to UV.
A period of time equal to 10-12 seconds.
Lens with one cancave surface (curves in) and one flat surface.
Lens with one convex surface (curves out) and one flat surface.
The ability of plasma to stop transmission of laser light.
An electro-optical crystal used as a Q-switch.
Ideally, a source with infinitesimal dimensions. Practically, a source of radiation whose dimensions are small compared with the viewing distance.
Beam movement and divergence, due to instability within the laser or other optical distortion.
Restriction of the vibrations of the electromagnetic field vector to a single plane. Prevents optical losses at interfaces between the lasing medium and optical elements.
A state in which a substance has been energized, or excited, so that more atoms or molecules are in a higher excited state than in a lower resting state. This is a necessary prerequisite for laser action.
The rate of energy delivery expressed in Watts (Jjoules per second). Thus, 1 Watt = 1 Joule x 1 second.>
An accessory used to measure laser beam power.
Pulse Repetition Frequency. The number of pulses produced per second by a laser.
A device designed to prevent access to radiant power or energy.
A discontinuous burst of laser light or energy, as opposed to a continuous beam. A true pulse achieves higher peak powers than that attainable in a CW output.
The “on” time of a pulsed laser. May be measured in terms of milliseconds, microsecond, or nanosecond as defined by half-peak-power points on the leading and trailing edges of the pulse.
Lasers that emit energy in a series of short bursts, or pulses, and are inactive between each pulse. Pulsed lasers—not to be confused with modulated lasers—typically deliver several Watts of peak power per pulse.
Operation of a laser when the beam is on intermittently in fractions of a second.
To excite the lasing medium. See pumping or optical pumping.
Energized laser medium.
Addition of energy (thermal, electrical, or optical) into the atomic population of the laser medium. Necessary to produce a state of population inversion.
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